好英語網好英語網

好英語網 - www.676827.live
好英語網一個提供英語閱讀,雙語閱讀,雙語新聞的英語學習網站。

三條黃金準則杜絕信用卡詐騙

Credit card fraud: What you need to know
三條黃金準則杜絕信用卡詐騙

If you are the owner of a credit or a debit card, there is a non-negligible chance that you may be subject to fraud, like millions of other people around the world.

如果你有信用卡或借記卡,就完全有可能遭遇詐騙,這和世界各地的其他數百萬人一樣。

Starting in the 1980s, there has been an impressive increase in the use of credit, debit and pre-paid cards internationally. According to an October 2016 Nilson Report, in 2015 more than $31 trillion were generated worldwide by these payment systems, up 7.3% from 2014.

從20世紀80年代開始,信用卡、借記卡和預付費卡的使用在世界各地大幅增加。根據尼爾森2016年10月發布的一份報告,2015年,這些支付系統在全世界的交易額超過31萬億美元,較2014年增加7.3%。

信用卡方便了人們的生活,也給犯罪分子帶來機會。

In 2015, seven in eight purchases in Europe were made electronically.

2015年,歐洲每8筆交易就有7筆通過電子方式完成。

Thanks to new online money-transfer systems, such as Paypal, and the spread of e-commerce around the world – including, increasingly, in the developing world (which was slow to adopt online payments) – these trends are expected to continue.

得益于PayPal等新興在線匯款系統和電子商務在世界各地的快速普及——也包括發展中市場,那里正在緩慢普及在線支付——這些趨勢有望持續。

Thanks to leading companies such as Flipkart, Snapdeal and Amazon India (which together had 80% of the Indian e-commerce market share in 2015) as well as Alibaba and JingDong (which had upwards of 70% of the Chinese market in 2016), electronic payments are reaching massive new consumer populations.

多虧了Flipkart、Snapdeal和亞馬遜印度等頂尖企業(它們合計占到印度2015年電子商務市場80%的份額)以及阿里巴巴和京東(它們合計占到中國2016年電子商務市場超過70%的份額),電子支付正在接觸海量的新消費群體。

This is a goldmine for cybercriminals. According to the Nilson Report, worldwide losses from card fraud rose to $21 billion in 2015, up from about $8 billion in 2010. By 2020, that number is expected to reach $31 billion.

這也成了網絡犯罪分子眼中的金礦。根據尼爾森的報告,全球因為信用卡詐騙造成的損失在2015年增加到210億美元,高于2010年的80億美元左右。到2020年,這一數字有望達到310億美元。

Such costs include, among other expenses, the refunds that banks and credit card companies make to defrauded clients (many banks in the West cap consumers’ liability at $50 as long as the crime is reported within 30 days for credit cards and within two days for debit cards. This incentivises banks to make significant investments in anti-fraud technologies.

除了其他費用外,這些成本包括銀行和信用卡公司支付給受害客戶的返款(西方很多銀行承諾,只要信用卡用戶在30天內報告犯罪行為,便可將其最高損失限制為50美元,借記卡的期限為2天),這便刺激銀行投入大筆資金開發反欺詐技術。

Cybercrime costs vendors in other ways too. They are charged with providing customers with a high standard of security. If they are negligent in this duty, credit card companies may charge them the cost of reimbursing a fraud.

網絡犯罪還會在其他方面給企業造成損失。企業需要為客戶提供極高的安全標準。如果在這方面有所疏忽,信用卡公司可能就會要求他們償還欺詐損失。

The types of frauds

欺詐類型


There are many kinds of credit card fraud, and they change so frequently as new technologies enable novel cybercrimes that it’s nearly impossible to list them all.

信用卡欺詐有很多類型,而且隨著新技術催生了新穎的網絡犯罪,使得它們的變化頻率很快,幾乎不可能逐一列出。

But there are two main categories:

但還是可以分成兩種主要類型:

card-not-present (CNP) frauds: This, the most common kind of fraud, occurs when the cardholder’s information is stolen and used illegally without the physical presence of the card. This kind of fraud usually occurs online, and may be the result of so-called “phishing” emails sent by fraudsters impersonating credible institutions to steal personal or financial information via a contaminated link.

無卡欺詐:這是最常見的一種欺詐,指的是在沒有使用卡片的情況下竊取持卡人信息或非法使用其卡片的行為。這種欺詐往往發生在網上,源頭可能是所謂的"釣魚"郵件:欺詐者假冒信用機構向人們發送郵件,通過虛假冒充的鏈接竊取個人或財務信息。

card-present-frauds: This is less common today, but it’s still worth watching out for. It often takes the form of “skimming” – when a dishonest seller swipes a consumer’s credit card into a device that stores the information. Once that data is used to make a purchase, the consumer’s account is charged.

有卡欺詐:這種情況目前較為少見,但仍然值得關注。這往往以"盜讀"(skimming)的形式進行——不誠實的商家在刷消費者的信用卡時會存儲相關信息。一旦這些數據被用于購物,消費者的賬號就會被扣款。

The mechanism of a credit card transaction

信用卡交易機制


Credit card fraud is facilitated, in part, because credit card transactions are a simple, two-step process: authorisation and settlement.

信用卡詐騙之所以快速發展,一定程度上源于這種交易采用了簡單的兩步流程:授權和結算。

At the beginning, those involved in the transaction (customer, card issuer, merchant and merchant’s bank) send and receive information to authorise or reject a given purchase. If the purchase is authorised, it is settled by an exchange of money, which usually takes place several days after the authorisation.

起初,參與交易的各方(客戶、信用卡發卡機構、商戶和商戶的銀行)通過收發信息來授權或拒絕授權某項購買行為。如果購買行為得到授權,便會通過貨幣交換來結算,這通常會在授權發生幾天后進行。

Once a purchase had been authorised, there is no going back. That means that all fraud detection measures must be done during in the first step of a transaction.

一旦購買行為獲得授權,就無法追溯。這意味著所有的欺詐探測措施都必須在第一步交易過程中完成。

Here’s how it works (in a dramatically simplified fashion).

以下就是具體實施過程的極簡版本。

Once companies such as Visa or Mastercard have licensed their brands to a card issuer – a lender like, say, Barclays Bank – and to the merchant’s bank, they fix the terms of the transaction agreement.

一旦Visa或Mastercard等公司將品牌授權給發卡機構——像巴克萊銀行這樣的貸方——以及商家的銀行,他們就會敲定交易條款。

Then, the card issuer physically delivers the credit card to the consumer. To make a purchase with it, the cardholder gives his card to the vendor (or, online, manually enters the card information), who forwards data on the consumer and the desired purchase to the merchant’s bank.

之后,發卡機構會將實體信用卡交付給消費者。要用信用卡購物,持卡人就要將自己的卡片交給商家(或者在網上手動輸入卡片信息),由后者將消費者及其準備進行的交易數據發送給商家的銀行。

The bank, in turn, routes the required information to the card issuer for analysis and approval – or rejection. The card issuer’s final decision is sent back to both the merchant’s bank and the vendor.

該銀行隨后將所需的信息發送給發卡機構,以供分析和驗證——或者拒絕。發卡機構的最終決定會返回給商家的銀行和商家。

Rejection may be issued only in two situations: if the balance on the cardholder’s account is insufficient or if, based on the data provided by the merchant’s bank, there is suspicion of fraud.

只有兩種情況才有可能拒絕交易:當持卡人賬號余額不足時,或者根據商家的銀行提供的數據,懷疑這筆交易涉嫌欺詐時。

Incorrect suspicions of fraud is inconvenient for the consumer, whose purchase has been denied and whose card may summarily be blocked by the card issuer, and poses a reputational damage to the vendor.

錯誤地懷疑欺詐會給消費者帶來不便,他們的購買行為會被拒絕,其卡片也有可能被發卡機構凍結,還會對商家的聲譽構成破壞。

How to counter frauds?

如何對抗欺詐?


Based on my research, which examines how advanced statistical and probabilistic techniques could better detect fraud, sequential analysis – coupled with new technology – holds the key.

我研究了如何用先進的統計和概率技術更好地發現欺詐行為,結果發現,配合其他技術使用的序列分析是關鍵所在。

Thanks to the continuous monitoring of cardholder expenditure and information – including the time, amount and geographical coordinates of each purchase – it should be possible to develop a computer model that would calculate the probability that a purchase is fraudulent. If the probability passes a certain threshold, the card issuer would be issued an alarm.

得益于對持卡人開支和信息的持續監控——包括每筆交易的時間、金額和地理坐標——就有可能開發一個電腦模型,從而計算某項交易的欺詐概率。如果概率超過特定閾值,發卡機構就會發出警報。

The company could then decide to either block the card directly or undertake further investigation, such as calling the consumer.

然后公司會決定直接凍結卡片還是展開進一步的調查,包括致電消費者。

The strength of this model, which applies a well-known mathematical theory called optimal stopping theory to fraud detection, is that it aims at either maximising an expected payoff or minimising an expected cost. In other words, all the computations would be aimed at limiting the frequency of false alarms.

這種模式將名為"最優停時理論"(optimal stopping theory)的著名數學原理應用到欺詐識別中,其優勢在于,它的目標既可以是預期收益最大化,也可以是預期成本最小化。換句話說,所有的計算目標都是為了限制誤報頻率。

My research is still underway. But, in the meantime, to reduce significantly the risk of falling victim to credit card fraud, here are some golden rules.

我的研究仍在進行。但與此同時,為了大幅降低遭受信用卡詐騙的風險,可以遵循一些黃金準則。

First, never click on links in emails that ask you to provide personal information, even if the sender appears to be your bank.

首先,永遠不要在那些向你索要個人信息的郵件中點擊鏈接,即便郵件似乎是你的銀行發來的。

Second, before you buy something online from an unknown seller, google the vendor’s name to see whether consumer feedback has been mainly positive.

第二,從不知名的在線賣家那里買東西時,首先搜索商家的名字,看看消費者的反饋是否以正面為主。

And, finally, when you make online payments, check that the webpage address starts with https://, a communication protocol for secure data transfer, and confirm that the web page does not contain grammatical errors or strange words. That suggests it may be a fake designed solely to steal your financial data.

最后,當你在網上支付時,應該檢查網址是否以https://開頭,這是一種安全的數據傳輸通訊協議。此外還要確認網址中不包含語法錯誤或怪異文字——倘若出現這種情況,或許就表明這純粹是為了竊取你的財務數據而設計的虛假網站。
贊一下
上一篇: 如何拆除石油鉆井平臺?
下一篇: 喬布斯是對的:手機和iPad殺死了個人電腦

相關推薦

隱藏邊欄
陕西快乐10分任4统计 山西11选五走势图 微乐吉林麻将官方版下载 一肖中特 深圳风采开奖走势图 网上赚钱的方法或软 在线斗牛棋牌游戏 股票长线短线 豪利棋牌送9元救济金下载 深圳证券交易所股票 手机版大唐麻将