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7個問題,了解特朗普彈劾案后續流程

What’s Next for Trump? A Senate Impeachment Trial, Probably
7個問題,了解特朗普彈劾案后續流程

Now that the House has voted to impeach President Trump, the matter would normally move to the Senate for a trial — the third for an American president.

現在眾議院已通過彈劾特朗普的投票,通常下一步將移交參議院審理——這是第三位進入彈劾審判的美國總統。

But questions about the timing of a trial arose after the House approved two articles of impeachment against Mr. Trump. Nancy Pelosi, the House speaker, wouldn’t say when she would transmit the articles, indicating that she may wait to get certain assurances about the fairness of a trial in the Republican-controlled Senate.

但是在眾議院通過兩項針對特朗普的彈劾條款后,出現了有關審判時宜的問題。眾議院議長南希·佩洛西(Nancy Pelosi)不愿透露她將何時移送條款,這表明她可能會等待共和黨控制的參議院對公平審判做出一定的保證。
 

罷免特朗普總統需要參議院三分之二的多數票。

A trial would require a two-thirds majority — 67 senators — to convict and remove the president. Republicans control the Senate, 53 to 47, and Mr. Trump is widely expected to be acquitted. But Democrats have argued that impeaching him is a moral necessity, even if he remains in office.

審判需要三分之二的多數(即67名參議員)才能定罪并罷免總統。共和黨以53票對47票控制著參議院,人們普遍認為特朗普將被宣布無罪。但民主黨人指出,彈劾他是道德上的必要,即使他繼續任職。

Mr. Trump is only the third president to face a Senate trial for “high crimes and misdemeanors.” (The first two, Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton, were both acquitted. Another president, Richard M. Nixon, resigned rather than face impeachment and trial.)

特朗普是第三位因“重罪和不端行為”面臨參議員審判的總統。(前兩位安德魯·約翰遜[Andrew Johnson]和比爾·克林頓[Bill Clinton]均被宣告無罪。另一位總統,理查德·尼克松[Richard Nixon]因辭職避開了彈劾和審判。)

Here’s what we know about how it would unfold.

關于接下來的流程,以下是我們所知道的。

When is the trial expected? How long will it be?

審判預計何時進行?需要多長時間?


This is unclear. While the president and his allies are eager for a speedy acquittal, Ms. Pelosi’s comments raised the possibility that the House could leave for the holidays without the matter resolved — leaving the stain of impeachment with no conclusion.

尚不清楚。盡管總統和他的盟友急切希望迅速宣布無罪釋放,佩洛西的評論提出了這樣一種可能性,即眾議院可能會在問題未解決的情況下休圣誕假——讓彈劾的子彈再飛一會兒。

A trial had been expected to begin in early January, and it’s unclear how long it would last. Republicans and Democrats alike have expressed an interest in keeping it short.

預計審判將于1月初開始,尚不清楚會持續多長時間。兩黨都表示有意速戰速決。

The 1999 trial of Mr. Clinton, who was tried on two articles of impeachment — perjury and obstruction of justice — lasted about five weeks.

1999年對克林頓兩項彈劾條款(偽證罪和妨礙司法公正)的審判持續了大約5個星期。

Who does what?

誰負責做什么?


To start, Speaker Nancy Pelosi of California would appoint a team of lawmakers to act as prosecutors during the trial. They are called managers, and they present the articles of impeachment to the Senate.

首先,來自加利福尼亞的議長南希·佩洛西將任命一組議員在審判期間擔任檢察官。他們被稱為監察(managers),向參議員呈交彈劾條款。

The chief justice of the United States, John G. Roberts Jr., would preside over the trial, and a legal team would defend Mr. Trump. Pat A. Cipollone, the White House counsel, is expected to represent Mr. Trump, along with the president’s outside lawyers.

美國首席大法官小約翰·G·羅伯茨(John G. Roberts Jr.)將主持審判,一個法律團隊將為特朗普辯護。預計白宮法律顧問帕特·A·希波隆(Pat A. Cipollone)將與總統的外部律師一起代表特朗普。

The Senate would have to come to an agreement on the trial procedures. Senators Mitch McConnell of Kentucky and Chuck Schumer of New York, the Republican and Democratic leaders, have already sparred over that task.
 
參議院必須就審判程序達成一致。作為共和黨和民主黨領袖,肯塔基州參議員米奇·麥康奈爾(Mitch McConnell)和紐約州參議員查克·舒默(Chuck Schumer)已經就這一問題發生爭執。

How will it work?

如何進行?


Any senator could propose a motion to dismiss the charges. (A simple majority vote would be needed.)

任何參議員都可以提出撤銷指控的動議。(需要簡單多數票。)

But if the trial proceeds, there would be opening and closing statements, questions from senators to the managers and defense lawyers, and, possibly, more subpoenas, evidence requests and witnesses called. Deliberations would likely happen in a closed session before a vote.

一旦審判繼續進行,將會有開庭陳詞與結案陳詞,由參議員向監察和辯護律師提出問題,還可能有更多傳票、證據請求和證人傳喚。在投票前,可能會進行閉門會議。

Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presided over Mr. Clinton’s trial, during which senators were allowed to ask questions of the prosecution and defense through written notecards. Justice Rehnquist read them aloud.

首席大法官威廉·倫奎斯特(William H. Rehnquist)主持了克林頓的審判,在審判期間,參議員被允許通過書面記錄卡向控方和辯方提問,倫奎斯特大法官將其念出來。

When the White House counsel leading Mr. Clinton’s defense, Charles F. C. Ruff, wanted to rebut, he put down his pen, which signaled Democratic aides to submit a question asking Mr. Ruff to comment on assertions made by the opposition.

當領導克林頓辯護的白宮法律顧問查爾斯·魯夫(Charles Ruff)想要反駁時,他用放下筆的動作示意民主黨的助手們提交一個問題,讓魯夫對反方的主張發表意見。

What are the rules?

都有什么樣的規則?


Essentially, it’s up to senators to decide the format of the trial, but they will most likely follow a set of rules governing impeachment trials that were revised in the 1980s.

從本質上講,審判的形式由參議員決定,但他們很可能會遵循1980年代修訂的一系列彈劾審判規則。

Senators also act as the jury, and must take an oath to render “impartial justice.” (A handful of the jurors are running for president.)

參議員還充當陪審團的角色,必須做出“公正正義”的宣誓。(有幾位陪審員正在參加總統競選。)

Mr. Schumer laid out a detailed proposal this week that called for additional witnesses who have not previously testified (including Mick Mulvaney, Mr. Trump’s acting chief of staff, and John R. Bolton, the president’s former national security adviser) as well as subpoenas for additional documents that the White House has withheld.

舒默本周提出了一份詳細提案,要求增加之前未作證的證人(包括特朗普的代理幕僚長米克·馬爾瓦尼[Mick Mulvaney]、總統前國家安全顧問約翰·R·博爾頓[John R. Bolton]),并命令白宮交出更多扣留的文件。

Mr. McConnell rejected Democrats’ demands to call White House officials as witnesses and said he had no obligation to be evenhanded or impartial during the proceedings. He is working with the White House to establish rules for the trial, trying to balance Mr. Trump’s desire for vindication with lawmakers’ concerns.

麥康奈爾拒絕了民主黨要求白宮官員作證的要求,并稱他沒有義務在訴訟過程中一視同仁或保持公正。他正在與白宮合作,為審判制定規則,試圖平衡特朗普證明自己無罪的要求和立法者的擔憂。

During Mr. Clinton’s trial, witnesses were not allowed to appear in person. Senators were shown videotaped portions of their testimony instead.

在克林頓受審期間,證人不允許親自出庭。取而代之的是,向參議員播放他們部分證詞的錄像。

“When the Senate decided what the rules were going to be for our trial, they really made them up as they went along,” Gregory B. Craig, who helped defend Mr. Clinton in his impeachment proceeding and later served as White House counsel to President Barack Obama, told The New York Times in 2017.

格雷戈里·B·克雷格(Gregory B. Craig)在2017年告訴《紐約時報》:“當參議院決定我們審判的規則時,他們真的是邊進行邊制定。”他曾在克林頓的彈劾程序中為其辯護,后來擔任了貝拉克·奧巴馬(Barack Obama)的白宮法律顧問。

What does the Constitution say about all this?

對于這一切,憲法是怎么規定的?


The Constitution permits Congress to remove presidents before their term is up if enough lawmakers vote to say that they have committed “treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.”

如果議員投票認為總統犯下了“叛國罪、賄賂罪、其他重罪或不端行為”,憲法允許國會在總統任期結束前將其罷免。

But it does not explain how lawmakers should interpret what constitutes those offenses. Similarly, there is no established standard of proof that must be met.

但它并沒有解釋立法者應該如何解釋什么樣的行為構成這些罪行。同樣,也沒有既定的證明標準是必須滿足的。

How might it end?

將會如何結束?


A conviction would require a two-thirds vote on at least one article, resulting in the president’s removal from office, with no opportunity to appeal. The vice president would take over as president.

定罪需要對至少一項條款有三分之二的投票通過,才能將總統罷免,并且沒有上訴機會。副總統將接任總統一職。

The Senate could subsequently vote to disqualify the president from future office, using a simple majority vote.

隨后,參議院可能會通過普通多數投票決定取消總統在未來任職的資格。

Though a conviction is unlikely — barring some unexpected development — the trial could have political ramifications for both parties.

盡管定罪的可能性很?。ǔ浅霈F一些意想不到的發展),審判可能會給兩黨都帶來政治后果。

How did previous impeachment trials end?

以前的彈劾審判是如何結束的?


The Johnson trial, in 1868, was anticlimactic, and mired in constant battles over process and authority between long-winded men in love with their own words, according to Brenda Wineapple, the author of “The Impeachers.”

根據《彈劾者》(The Impeachers)一書作者布倫達·維恩阿波(Brenda Wineapple)的說法,1868年對約翰遜的審判虎頭蛇尾,陷入了愛長篇大論的咬文嚼字者之間在程序和權威方面的無休止的斗爭。

In the end, enough Republicans rallied with Democrats to spare Johnson from conviction by a single vote.

最終,有足夠的共和黨人與民主黨人聯合起來,以一票之差使約翰遜免于定罪。

On Feb. 12, 1999, the Senate acquitted Mr. Clinton, falling short of even a majority vote on either of the charges against him.

1999年2月12日,參議員院宣告克林頓無罪,對他的兩項指控都沒有獲得多數票。
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