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九個要點,帶你了解特朗普如何“推特治國”

Trump’s Twitter Presidency: 9 Key Takeaways
九個要點,帶你了解特朗普如何“推特治國”

Donald J. Trump has exploited social media like no other American president, using it as a springboard to change policy, as a cudgel against critics and as an outlet for self-affirmation. “He needs to tweet like we need to eat,” said Kellyanne Conway, his White House counselor.

唐納德·J·特朗普對社交媒體的利用不同于其他美國總統,他把它作為改變政策的跳板、反對批評的棍棒和表達自我肯定的途徑。“他需要發推就像我們需要吃飯一樣,”他的白宮顧問凱莉安·康維(Kellyanne Conway)說。

Along the way, he has lent credibility to unsavory Twitter accounts through his habit of retweeting posts that catch his attention, seemingly without regard for who is behind them or their motives.

一直以來,他習慣轉發引其注意的帖子,似乎沒有考慮它們的背后是誰,也不考慮其動機。這給那些令人討厭的Twitter賬戶增加了可信度。

In three articles, The New York Times analyzed Mr. Trump’s posts, studied the accounts he follows and interviewed dozens of administration officials, lawmakers, Twitter executives and ordinary Americans caught up in his tweets. Here are some of our findings.

在三篇文章中,《紐約時報》分析了特朗普的帖子,研究了他關注的賬戶,并采訪了幾十名政府官員、議員、Twitter高管和推文涉及的普通美國人。以下是我們的一些發現。

Attack, attack, attack — with a notable exception

攻擊、攻擊、再攻擊,不過有個明顯的例外


Over half of the president’s more than 11,000 tweets are attacks, aimed at everything and everyone from the Russia investigation and the Federal Reserve to black football players and Amazon’s founder, Jeff Bezos. But in more than 2,000 tweets, Mr. Trump has cited one person for praise: himself.

總統超過1.1萬條的推文半數以上都是在攻擊,目標從俄羅斯調查、美聯儲到黑人橄欖球運動員及亞馬遜創始人杰夫·貝佐斯(Jeff Bezos),不一而足。但在2000多條推文中,特朗普引用了一個人的話來贊美,那個人就是他自己。

The president’s staff wanted his tweets on a 15-minute delay

總統的工作人員曾希望他的推文延遲15分鐘發布


Early in Mr. Trump’s presidency, The Times learned, top aides discussed asking Twitter to impose a 15-minute delay on his account, not unlike the five-second naughty-word system used by television networks. But they quickly abandoned the idea after recognizing the political peril if the idea leaked to the press — or to their boss.

時報了解到,在特朗普就任總統之初,他的高級助手曾討論要求Twitter對他的賬戶實行15分鐘的延遲,類似電視網采用的5秒臟話延遲系統。但他們很快就放棄了這個想法,因為他們意識到,這個想法若是讓媒體或他們的老板知道,會帶來政治風險。

Foreign intelligence services try to catch his attention

外國情報機構試圖引起他的注意


Twitter accounts tied to state-sponsored propaganda operations in Iran and Russia have directed thousands of posts at Mr. Trump. The accounts frequently promoted conspiracy theories or support for Mr. Trump’s policies. One wrote, “We love you Mr. President!” Mr. Trump retweeted it.

一些Twitter賬戶與伊朗和俄羅斯國家支持的政治宣傳活動有關,它們將數千條帖子直接推給了特朗普。這些賬戶經常宣揚陰謀論或支持特朗普的政策。其中一條寫道,“我們愛您,總統先生!”特朗普予以轉發。

Mr. Trump’s retweets have given a boost to extremists

特朗普的轉發助長了極端分子


The president has retweeted at least 145 unverified accounts that push conspiracy or extremist content, including more than two dozen that have since been suspended by Twitter. Among them are white nationalists, anti-Muslim bigots and adherents of QAnon, a conspiracy theory involving satanic pedophiles and the “deep state” whose followers have been labeled a potential domestic terror threat by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

總統轉發了至少145個未經驗證的賬戶,這些賬戶推送陰謀論或極端主義內容,其中20多個賬戶已經被Twitter封停。它們包括白人種族主義者、反穆斯林偏執狂和“匿名者Q”(QAnon)的追隨者,后者是一個涉及邪惡戀童癖和“深層政府”(deep state)的陰謀論,美國聯邦調查局已將其追隨者列為潛在的國內恐怖威脅。

He doesn’t follow back

他不會關注回去


Much of the questionable material Mr. Trump recirculates comes from the steady flow of tweets, about 1,000 per minute, that tag his handle. But it also comes from the tiny number of accounts that Mr. Trump follows and that make up his curated feed — just 47 at present, most of them members of his family, celebrities, Fox News hosts or Republican politicians. Some of those people, in turn, follow Twitter accounts that promote QAnon, express anti-Islam attitudes or espouse white nationalist views.

特朗普轉發的很多有問題的內容都來自于源源不斷的推文流,每分鐘大約1000條,這些推文都以他的名字為標簽。但這些內容也來自特朗普關注的少量賬戶,這些賬戶構成了他挑選過的資訊來源——目前僅有47個,其中大多數是他的家人、名人、??怂剐侣?Fox News)的主持人或共和黨人士。其中一些人反過來也會關注那些推廣“匿名者Q”、表達反伊斯蘭態度或支持白人民族主義觀點的Twitter賬戶。

You’ve probably never seen him tweet in public

你可能從未見過他在公共場合發推


That’s because he doesn’t like to wear the reading glasses he needs to see his iPhone screen. Instead, the president dictates tweets to Dan Scavino, the White House social media director. Sometimes, Mr. Scavino prints out suggested tweets in extra-large fonts for Mr. Trump to sign off on.

那是因為他不喜歡戴上看iPhone屏幕的老花鏡。相反,總統向白宮社交媒體主管丹·斯卡維諾(Dan Scavino)口授推文。有時候,斯卡維諾會用超大字體打印出推薦的推文,讓特朗普簽字同意。

2015年,特朗普在用Twitter。自當選以來,很少有人看到他在公共場合發推,因為他不喜歡戴老花鏡。

Mornings are for tweeting

早上發推


Mr. Trump’s Twitter habit is most intense at the start of the day, when he is in the White House residence, often watching Fox News, scrolling through his Twitter mentions and turning the platform into what one aide called the “ultimate weapon of mass dissemination.” Nearly half of his “attack tweets” were sent between 6 a.m. and 10 a.m., time that he spends mostly without advisers present.

特朗普發推的習慣在一天開始時最為強烈,這時他在白宮官邸,往往是在看??怂剐侣?,翻閱他的Twitter內容,把這個平臺變成一名助手所說的“大眾傳播的終極武器”。他的“攻擊推文”有近一半是在早上6點到10點之間發出的,此時他大部分時間都沒有顧問在場。

We read every single presidential tweet ever

我們閱讀了總統的每一條推文


The president has bragged 183 times about his crowd size or applause at events; attacked immigrants 570 times; praised dictators 132 times; and called the news media the “enemy of the people” 36 times. On 16 occasions, Mr. Trump referred to himself as everyone’s “favorite president.”

總統吹噓他在活動中的人群規?;颢@得的掌聲共183次;攻擊移民570次;贊美獨裁者132次;并36次將新聞媒體稱為“人民公敵”。有16次,特朗普稱自己是大家“最喜歡的總統”。

Twitter is not real life

Twitter不是現實生活


According to data from YouGov, which polls about each of the president’s tweets, some of the topics on which Mr. Trump gets the most “likes” and retweets — jabs at the N.F.L., posts about the special counsel’s investigation, unfounded allegations of widespread voter fraud — poll poorly with the general public.

根據輿觀調查公司(YouGov)對總統每條推文進行的民調發現,特朗普獲得最多點“贊”和轉發的一些話題——對NFL(美國職業橄欖球大聯盟)的抨擊、關于特別檢察官調查的帖子、稱普遍存在選民作弊行為的毫無根據的指控——在公眾中的支持率很低。
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