好英語網好英語網

好英語網 - www.676827.live
好英語網一個提供英語閱讀,雙語閱讀,雙語新聞的英語學習網站。

吃辣椒對人體有害嗎?

Can you hurt yourself eating chilli peppers?
吃辣椒對人體有害嗎?

The delicious burn of a really good curry or salsa or Sichuanese hot pot – that fiery goodness that makes you sweat and flush – is for many people one of life’s great pleasures. The search for the most profound scorch is a hobby of sorts, perhaps even an obsession.

對于許多人來說,大汗淋漓、滿臉通紅地體驗咖喱、墨西哥沙司(salsa)或者四川火鍋帶來的麻辣口感是生活中最大的樂趣之一。尋找最辣食物灼燒自己的口腔也成了很多人的業余愛好,對此樂而不疲的也大有人在。

And hot-hunters are safe in the knowledge that although capsaicin, the spicy molecule in hot peppers, is activating receptors in pain neurons in their mouths, it’s not really causing any damage. Give it a few minutes, and the feeling that you’ve torched yourself will fade, only returning when the meal – ah – leaves the premises, a day or so later. It’s all fun and games. Right?

大家都知道,辣椒是一種安全食品。紅辣椒中的辣味來源–辣椒素分子能夠通過刺激口腔內的痛覺神經元受體而產生辣感,但實際上它并沒有對人體產生危害。僅僅在幾分鐘過后,口腔中的灼燒感就會消失。一天以后再吃辣就能夠再一次體會這種感覺,這好像是一場好玩的游戲。
 

Well, until someone gets hurt.

不過先等等,吃辣椒吃出問題的也大有人在。

Chillies are rated on a spiciness scale known as Scoville – a grading of heat that goes from the lowly bell pepper (0) right up to the fearsomely named Carolina Reaper (2.2 million). And while everyday amounts of spicy food are unlikely to do any harm, thrill-seekers have had some disconcerting experiences. In 2014, two journalists from The Argus, a newspaper in the British city of Brighton, went to test out burgers at a local restaurant rated highly on TripAdvisor. They each took a bite of the XXX Hot Chilli Burger, a specialty of the house made with hot sauce touted by the owner to score higher on the Scoville scale than pepper spray.

辣椒以其辣度(Scoville)分為多個等級,從等級最低的青椒(辣度為0)一直到令人望而色變的“卡羅萊納死神辣椒(Carolina Reaper)”(辣度220萬)。盡管人們每天正常飲食中攝入的辣椒對人體不會產生什么危害,但是嗜辣者的瘋狂行為則不在此列。2014年,英國布萊頓市(Brighton)《百眼巨人報》(The Argus)的兩位記者到當地獲得貓途鷹網站(TripAdvisor)高分平價的一家餐館吃漢堡。他們每人嚼了一口XXX級超辣漢堡–這種漢堡是餐館老板為了招徠人氣,用比防狼噴劑辣度還高的辣醬做成的。

The pain was unendurable – one reporter immediately swallowed a great deal of milk to try to stave it off, the newspaper reported. The other began to have severe stomach pains, lost the feeling in his hands, and began to shake and hyperventilate. His colleague was also seized with pain despite his efforts, and both had to go to the hospital. “I was in so much pain,” one said, “I felt like I was dying.”

口腔里的巨大灼痛立即超出了他們的忍耐極限–一位記者迅速喝下大量牛奶以求壓制辣感,報紙報道說。另一位記者則開始出現嚴重腹痛,雙手失去知覺,并開始渾身顫抖、用力呼吸。他的同事盡管喝了牛奶,但還是熬不住劇痛。最后兩人都被送進醫院。“當時感覺太疼了,”一名記者說,“我感覺快死掉了。”

Daring pepper eaters who consume some of the world’s hottest specimens on camera have found themselves vomiting for an audience. A miniature YouTube film festival of hot pepper eating and its regurgitatory consequences is a rivetting spectacle, writes Aaron Thier for Lucky Peach, who describes a slowed-down recording of a Danish event where a thousand people ate ghost peppers. “Everyone sweats and hiccups, as usual, but the editing gives it a mythic, eternal, lyrical quality. The vomiting seems exultant,” he writes.

在攝像機鏡頭前嘗試世界最辣辣椒的勇敢嗜辣者們最后無不以失控嘔吐而告終。Youtube上的系列吃辣椒表演以及最終結果十分引人入勝,亞倫·斯耶(Aaron Thier)在為美食雜志《福桃》(Lucky Peach)寫的一篇文章中描述了一場1000人同吃魔鬼辣椒的丹麥活動的慢動作回放。“和往常的類似反應一樣,每個人都在大汗淋漓,不停打嗝。但是剪輯師卻營造了一種神話般的、永恒的、抒情性的效果。就連人們嘔吐時的表情都顯得那么興高采烈,”他在文章中寫道。

Matt Gross’s account of hot debauchery for Bon Appetit, on the other hand, starts with the cold, hard numbers. “It took me 21.85 seconds to consume three Carolina Reapers, the world’s hottest chillies. And it took me approximately 14 hours to recover from the aftermath,” he says. (Spoiler: The aftermath involved the symptoms of a heart attack.)

馬特·格羅斯(Matt Gross)也為美食雜志《好胃口》(Bon Appetit)寫了一篇關于辣椒的文章,文章是以冷冰冰的數字開始的。“我花了21.85秒才吃完三根世界上最辣的辣椒–卡羅萊納死神辣椒。之后的劇烈身體反應足足讓我花了將近14小時才恢復過來,”他寫道。(《破壞者:小小辣椒讓你體驗心臟病發病癥狀》)

So what is going on here? If all hot peppers are doing is fooling your body into thinking there’s a small fire in your mouth, why can they provoke such a serious reaction?

其中究竟有什么機制?如果辣椒只不過是通過在你口腔中引發灼痛而欺騙你的身體,那么它為什么會引發如此劇烈的軀體反應?

Let’s come back to the basic biology of capsaicin. This molecule may have evolved as an anti-fungal agent for the plants that bore it. But, to humans’ joy and fascination and fear, it happens to activate certain neurons responsible for the perception of pain. Those particular neurons send a message of heat to the brain, whether the cells are activated by an actual burn or by a hot pepper. It’s not their business to distinguish between these noxious options – as far as the body is concerned, it’s better safe than sorry.

我們不妨先分析一下辣椒素的基本生物學效應。辣椒素分子最初是由植物的抗真菌成分演化而成。然而人類卻由于它對痛覺神經元受體的刺激作用而對它產生了喜好、迷戀或恐懼。無論受到火焰灼燒還是辣椒素的刺激,痛覺神經元都會向大腦發出同樣的受熱信號。神經元本身無法分辨二者–對于人體來說,在有可能受傷的情況下避開威脅,遠比僅僅受到愚弄更為合理。

The physical effects of eating peppers can be seen as reactions to what might be — from the body’s perspective — real burns, says Bruce Bryant, a biologist at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia. Sweating is an adaptation for cooling off. Triggered pain neurons release substances that cause blood vessels to widen, resulting in inflammation, the better to supply the damaged area with blood and the body’s first responders.

吃辣椒后的身體反應可以看作是人體自認為遭到燒傷后的應激措施,費城莫奈爾化學感覺中心(Monell Chemical Senses Center)的生物學家布魯斯·布萊恩特(Bruce Bryant)說。出汗是人體進行自我冷卻的過程。受到激發的痛覺神經元會釋放導致血管擴張的物質,從而引發炎癥反應,向受損部位輸送更多血液及急救物質。

When that Carolina Reaper hits your stomach lining and you retch, “that response is because there are pain-sensing nerve endings in the stomach”, says Bryant. “The body says, ‘I don't care if it’s a thermal burn or a chemical, but I’m going to get rid of it.’”

”卡羅萊納死神辣椒接觸你的胃壁后會引發嘔吐,“胃里分布有痛覺神經末梢,”布萊恩特說。“我們的身體會說,‘我不管是灼熱物質還是化學刺激物質,我只想把它清除出去。’”

The responses that your body might have if you’d swallowed a caustic substance come into play with high levels of capsaicin because that is, after all, what the molecule mimics. Those burn-sensing neurons, in your mouth, stomach, and elsewhere, are going to do their thing whether what you’ve swallowed will really kill you or just give you some discomfort on the toilet.

分布在你口腔、胃和其他部位的痛覺神經元會促使你攝入大量堿性物質以中和體內的大量辣椒素,而無論你在亂中喝下的物質會造成你的死亡,還是僅僅是讓你在衛生間上吐下瀉。

But, hours or a day or so of very serious discomfort aside, there don’t seem to be long-term dangers, per se, in eating very hot peppers. Biologists have observed, however, that administering capsaicin over long periods of time in young mammals does result in the death of the pain neurons, Bryant says. Setting the neurons off repeatedly wears them out, and they don’t grow back.

然而,吃了極辣辣椒幾個小時或者一天過后,盡管不適感依然存在,但人體本身并沒有受到長期性威脅。然而,生物學家已經發現,如果長期以辣椒素喂養幼年哺乳動物,會造成痛覺神經元的死亡,布萊恩特說。不斷激發神經元會造成其出現疲勞受損情況,并且受損的神經元不會再生。

Interestingly, there is even a theory that pepper plants might have developed the molecule as a way to deter mammals from chewing up their seeds. Birds, which eat pepper seeds whole and helpfully spread them in their faeces, do not have the necessary receptors to feel the burn. But in humans, pepper plants have encountered a special kind of mammal that courts the feeling, to the edge of reason and probably a little bit beyond.

有趣的是,辣椒這種植物進化出辣椒素分子的目的就在于避免讓哺乳動物吞下它的種子。將辣椒種子囫圇吞下并通過糞便加以傳播的鳥類則沒有會產生灼燒感的神經受體。然而,辣椒現在卻不幸遇到了以追逐辣感而取樂的人類,這種追逐已經超出了理性的范疇。

Luckily for the pepper, this does not seem to have damaged its fortunes.

幸好,辣椒這種植物不大可能因此而遭到衰亡的厄運。
贊一下
上一篇: 無辣不歡 吃辣帶來的兩種神奇功效
下一篇: 擊斃拉登可能影響抗擊小兒麻痹癥

相關推薦

隱藏邊欄
陕西快乐10分任4统计 澳洲快乐8走势图 不同类型基金的资产配置比例 免费打麻将四人单机版 1比1现金兑换捕鱼游戏 澳洲快乐8开奖直播 22选5开奖结果今天晚河南 财神爷网站资料 长春麻将怎么玩 欧冠赛程2018赛程表 星悦云南麻将下载