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空腹鍛煉讓你燃燒更多脂肪

Eating After You Exercise May Provide Added Fat-Burning Benefits
空腹鍛煉讓你燃燒更多脂肪

Working out on an empty stomach could amplify the health benefits of the activity, according to a well-timed new study of the interplay of meal timing, metabolic health and moving. The study, which involved sedentary men and moderate cycling, suggests that whether and when we eat may affect how exercise affects us.

根據一項針對進餐時間、代謝健康和運動是如何相互影響的研究,空腹鍛煉會增強運動帶來的健康益處。這項研究選取久坐的男性作為研究對象,讓他們進行適度的蹬自行車運動,研究結果表明,我們是否、以及何時進餐可能會影響運動效果。

In general, any exercise improves our health. But a wealth of recent science and personal experience indicate that different people can respond to similar exercise routines in different ways. Even if everyone completes the same amount of exercise, some people become more fit than others, or lose more weight, or gain greater control of their blood sugar.

一般而言,任何運動都對我們的健康有益。但是,最近有大量科學和個人經驗表明,不同的人會以不同的方式對相似的運動程序做出反應。即使每個人都完成相同的運動量,有些人也會比其他人更健康、或者減少更多的體重,亦或者是更好地控制血糖。
 

Most exercise scientists believe that our genetics, diets, physiques, temperaments and other subtle aspects of our lives act in concert to shape how our bodies react to exercise.

大多數運動科學家認為,我們的遺傳、飲食、體質、性情和我們生活中的其他微妙方面共同影響著我們的身體對運動的反應方式。

But some researchers suspect meal timing matters as well. Working muscles need fuel during exercise, mostly in the form of sugar (glucose) or fat. That fuel can come from our most recent meal, once its component sugars and fats reach our bloodstreams, or from our bodies’ stores of fats and sugars. We all have such stores, especially of fat, some of it residing in our muscles and marbling them like pricey sirloin.

但一些研究人員懷疑,進餐時間也很重要。在鍛煉過程中,運動中的肌肉需要燃料——主要是以燃燒糖(葡萄糖)或脂肪的形式。這種燃料可以來自于我們最近吃進的食物,也可以來自我們身體中儲存的脂肪和糖類。我們所有人都有脂肪儲存,其中一些藏在肌肉中。

This muscle fat becomes problematic if we accumulate too much of it. Fatty muscles do not respond well to the hormone insulin, which directs sugar from the blood into the muscles. As a result, excess fat can contribute to insulin resistance, high blood sugar levels and increased risks for Type 2 diabetes and other metabolic conditions.

如果積累得過多,這種肌肉脂肪就會造成問題。過多的脂肪會導致胰島素抵抗、高血糖以及二型糖尿病和其他代謝疾病的風險增加。

So, researchers at the University of Bath in England and other institutions began to wonder whether meal timing might influence how much muscle fat we burn during exercise, which would then affect the long-term metabolic consequences of exercise and help to explain, in part, why some people get more out of exercise than others.

因此,英國巴斯大學和其他機構的研究人員開始懷疑,進餐時間是否會影響我們在運動中能夠燃燒多少肌肉脂肪,進而影響運動的長期代謝后果。

To look into those issues, they recruited 30 overweight, sedentary men. (They plan to do a follow-up study with women.) The researchers tested the men’s fitness and insulin sensitivity and then divided them into three groups.

研究人員招募了30名久坐超重的男性,測試了他們的健康狀況和胰島素敏感度,然后將其分為三組。

One, as a control, continued their usual lives. The other two groups started supervised exercise in the morning three times a week, riding stationary bicycles at a moderate pace while wearing monitors and masks that tracked their heart rates and the amount of fat and sugar they burned. The researchers also asked them periodically how they felt while riding.

作為對照,一組繼續他們的慣常生活,而另外兩組則每周三次在早上進行鍛煉:其中一組在騎自行車前兩小時喝下香草奶昔作為早餐,另一組人則飲用了類似口味的安慰劑飲料,該飲料中含有水、調味劑,但不含卡路里。換句話說,安慰劑組空著肚子騎車,但他們不知道。而在運動之后,每個人會得到他們此前沒有喝到的那種飲料。

One exercise group also downed a vanilla-flavored shake two hours before their ride (with no other breakfast) while the other group swallowed a similar-tasting placebo drink, containing water, flavoring and no calories. In other words, the placebo group rode on an empty stomach, but did not know it.

實驗持續了六個星期,期間科學家一直在監測他們的心律、燃燒的脂肪和糖量。之后,科學家們計算了數字,得出了一些明顯的差異。正如預期的那樣,兩個運動組的男性健康狀況均有改善,但空腹騎車的安慰劑組在每次騎行中燃燒的脂肪大約是喝奶昔那一組的兩倍。他們在騎車過程中燃燒了大約相同數量的卡路里,但空腹的那一組燃燒的卡路里更多來自脂肪。

After exercise, each rider received the drink he had not previously swallowed. The riders who had fasted got the shake and the other group the placebo.

總體而言,這些發現表明,“你可以通過在早餐前鍛煉來從運動中獲得更多好處,而無需增加強度或時間,”巴斯大學生理學和營養學教授哈維爾·岡薩雷斯(Javier Gonzalez)說。他建議,個人可根據日程和個人喜好來安排鍛煉時間,即使無法做到早起空腹鍛煉,鍛煉也總比不鍛煉要好。
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