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為什么不應該強迫自己早睡早起?

Why you shouldn’t try to be a morning person
為什么不應該強迫自己早睡早起?

We’ve all heard it before: to be successful, get out of bed early. After all, Apple CEO Tim Cook gets up at 3:45am, Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne at 3:30am and Richard Branson at 5:45am – and, as we know, “the early bird catches the worm.”

我們都聽過這樣的說法:想成功,就早起。畢竟,蘋果首席執行官蒂姆·庫克(Tim Cook)凌晨3:45就起床了,菲亞特首席執行官塞爾吉奧·馬爾喬內(Sergio Marchionne)3:30起床,而理查德·布蘭森(Richard Branson)也在5:45起床——更何況,還有一句諺語說得好:"早起的鳥兒有蟲吃。"

But just because some successful people wake up early, does that mean it’s a trait most of them share? And if the idea of having exercised, planned your day, eaten breakfast, visualised and done one task before 8am makes you want to roll over and hit snooze ’til next Saturday, are you really doomed to a less successful life?

可是,僅僅因為成功人士有早起的習慣,就表示我們多數人都應該效仿這種做法嗎?早晨8點之前起床鍛煉、好好計劃一天、吃好早餐、設想并完成一項任務,如果這樣的想法讓你感覺昏昏欲睡,一直到下個星期六才能回過神來,那么你的人生是否注定無法成就大業?

For about half of us, this isn’t really an issue. It’s estimated that some 50% of the population isn’t really morning or evening-oriented, but somewhere in the middle.

對于一半的人來說,這其實不是問題。據估計,大約有50%的人既不是"百靈鳥",也不是"貓頭鷹",而是介于二者之間。
 

"貓頭鷹"記憶力更好,處理事情的速度更快,認知能力也更強。接招吧,"百靈鳥"

Roughly one in four of us, though, tend more toward bright-eyed early risers, and another one in four are night owls. For them, the effects can go beyond falling asleep in front of the TV at 10pm or being chronically late for work. Research shows that morning versus evening types show a classic left-brain versus right-brain division: more analytical and cooperative versus more imaginative and individualistic.

大約四個人中就有一個喜歡早睡早起,還有一個人喜歡晚睡晚起。對他們來說,這種特點產生的影響可不只是晚上10點在電視機前昏昏欲睡,或者常年上班遲到這么簡單。研究表明,"百靈鳥"和"貓頭鷹"的差異顯示了典型的左右腦分割狀態:一邊偏重分析和合作,另一邊偏重想象力和個人主義。

Numerous studies have found that morning people are more persistent, self-directed and agreeable. They set higher goals for themselves, plan for the future more and have a better sense of well-being. And compared to night owls, they’re less likely to be depressed, drink or smoke.

很多研究都發現,"百靈鳥"更固執,更自我,也更和藹。他們會給自己制定較高的目標,也會對未來展開更多規劃,幸福感也更強。與"貓頭鷹"相比,他們不太容易抑郁、酗酒或抽煙。

Although morning types may achieve more academically, night owls tend to perform better on measures of memory, processing speed and cognitive ability, even when they have to perform those tasks in the morning. Night-time people are also more open to new experiences and seek them out more. They may be more creative (although not always). And contrary to the maxim (‘healthy, wealthy and wise’), one study showed that night owls are as healthy and wise as morning types – and a little bit wealthier.

雖然"百靈鳥"的學術成就可能更高,但"貓頭鷹"往往更擅長記憶、處理速度和認知能力,即便是當他們不得不在早晨完成這些任務時也不例外。"貓頭鷹"對新的體驗更加開放,也希望探索更多東西。他們可能更有創造力(盡管并非總是如此)。雖然俗語說"早睡早起,健康、聰明又富有",但有一項研究表明,"貓頭鷹"跟"百靈鳥"一樣健康,一樣聰明,甚至更加富有。

Still think the morning people sound more like CEO material? Don’t set your alarm for 5am just yet. As it turns out, overhauling your sleep times may not have much effect.

你是否仍然覺得早起的人更像是首席執行官的材料?別急著把鬧鈴調到早晨五點。實際上,調整睡眠時間可能不會產生太大效果。

“If people are left to their naturally preferred times, they feel much better. They say that they are much more productive. The mental capacity they have is much broader,” says Oxford University biologist Katharina Wulff, who studies chronobiology and sleep. On the other hand, she says, pushing people too far out of their natural preference can be harmful. When they wake early, for example, night owls are still producing melatonin. “Then you disrupt it and push the body to be in the daytime mode. That can have lots of negative physiological consequences,” Wulff says, like a different sensitivity to insulin and glucose – which can cause weight gain.

"如果人們可以自由選擇他們喜歡的時間,感覺就會好得多。他們表示,這樣的效率會高得多。心智能力也會大得多。"牛津大學生物學家凱瑟琳娜·伍爾夫(Katharina Wulff)說,她專門研究時間生物學和睡眠。另一方面,她表示,如果迫使人們過分偏離自然偏好,可能會產生破壞。例如,"貓頭鷹"早起的時候仍在生成褪黑素。"然后,你終止了這個過程,讓自己的身體進入日間模式。這會產生很多對身體不利的影響。"伍爾夫說,例如對胰島素和葡萄糖的敏感度改變——這會導致體重上升。

In many ways, that makes sense, since research shows that our chronotype, or internal clock, is mainly biological. (Researchers even have found that the circadian rhythms of human cells in vitro correlate with the rhythms of the people they were taken from). Up to 47% of it is inherited, which means if you want to know why you pop up at dawn each day (or never do), you should probably look at your parents. One genetic factor seems to be the length of the circadian cycle: humans average a 24.2-hour clock, meaning everyone adjusts slightly each day to a 24-hour rhythm. But for night owls, the clock often runs longer – meaning that, without external cues to change, they’ll fall asleep and get up later and later over time.

在很多情況下都是這種道理,因為研究表明,我們的睡眠類型(或者生物鐘)主要是一種生物現象。(研究人員甚至發現,人類細胞在體外的晝夜節律與它的主人相同。)高達47%來自遺傳,也就是說,如果你想知道自己為什么每天凌晨起床(或者從來都不這樣),那就應該看看自己的父母。其中一個遺傳因素似乎是晝夜周期的長度:人體的晝夜周期平均為24.2小時,表明所有人都要略作調整才能適應每天24小時的節律。但對于"貓頭鷹"來說,晝夜周期往往更長——也就是說,如果不用外部信號對其進行調整,他們入睡和起床的時間就會越來越晚。

Your preference does change as you age. Children tend toward morning, with a peak shift toward night around age 20 and a slight change back toward morning at around age 50. But compared to your peers, you’ll probably always fall within the same rough part of the spectrum.

偏好的確會隨著年齡而改變。兒童傾向于早起,20歲左右達到頂峰,之后開始轉向晚睡晚起,到了50歲左右又開始重新向早睡早起轉變。但與同年齡段的人相比,你所處的大致區間可能不會改變。

Bright eyes

明亮的眼睛


In our rush to figure out the ‘secrets’ of success, we tend to forget a couple of things. First, not all high achievers are early risers, and not all early risers are successful. (Famous late risers include Box CEO Aaron Levie and Buzzfeed CEO Jonah Peretti, plus creatives like James Joyce, Gertrude Stein and Gustave Flaubert).

在我們爭相探索"成功秘訣"時,往往會忘記一件事情。首先,并非所有成功人士都是"百靈鳥",也并非所有"百靈鳥"都能成功。(著名的"貓頭鷹"包括Box首席執行官阿隆·萊維(Aaron Levie)和Buzzfeed首席執行官喬娜·佩雷蒂(Jonah Peretti),另外還有詹姆斯·喬伊斯(James Joyce)、格特魯德·斯泰因(Gertrude Stein)和古斯塔夫·夫勞博特(Gustave Flaubert)等創意人士)。

But more importantly, in a phrase beloved by academics everywhere, correlation isn’t causation. In other words, it’s not clear that waking up early itself provides the benefit. Instead, it may be that most of us are expected to start work or school by 8 or 9am. If you’re a morning person, a combination of biological changes, from your hormones to body temperature, will get you up and at 'em way ahead of your night owl peers. That means people who enjoy rising early will be more aligned with their workday and likely to achieve more. For a night owl waking at 7am, her body still thinks she’s asleep and is acting accordingly, so she’s groggy for much longer than a morning person who wakes up at the same time.

但更重要的是,套用學者最喜歡說的一句話:相關性不代表因果關系。換言之,無法判斷是不是早起本身帶來了這些好處。相反,有可能是我們多數人都希望早晨八點或九點開始工作。如果你是一個喜歡早起的人,再結合激素和體溫等生物學上的變化,就會促使你早起,而且遠早于同齡的"貓頭鷹"。這意味著享受早起的人更容易契合自己的工作日程,也更有可能實現更大的成就。對于早晨7點起床的"貓頭鷹"來說,她的身體可能認為她在睡覺,并作出相應的反應,所以她睡眼朦朧的時間會比同時間起床的"百靈鳥"更長。

Researchers also point out that because evening types often have to function when their bodies don’t want to, it makes sense that they may have worse moods or lower life satisfaction. It may also mean that they’ve had to figure out how to be more innovative and cut corners – which may encourage their creativity and cognitive skills.

研究人員還指出,由于"貓頭鷹"往往要在身體不想工作時工作,所以他們的情緒可能比較糟糕,生活滿意度也較低。這可能也意味著他們必須想辦法提高創意,尋找捷徑——這或許會鼓勵他們提高創造力和認知技巧。

Because the cultural stereotype is that people who go to bed and rise late are lazy, most people probably try to become morning people as much as they can. The only ones who don’t may inherently have more rebellious, or individualistic, traits.

傳統文化認為,晚睡晚起的人都很懶惰,所以多數人可能都會盡量早起。為數不多堅持晚睡晚起的人可能本性上就更加叛逆,更加個人主義。

But shifting someone’s chronotype doesn’t necessarily change these traits. As one recent study found, even as people tried to become ‘morning’ people, it didn’t make them have a better mood or life satisfaction, suggesting these traits are “intrinsic components of the late chronotype.”

但要改變睡眠類型未必非要改變這些特性。最近的一項研究發現,即便當人們試圖變成"百靈鳥"時,他們的情緒或生活滿意度也不會因此提高,這表明這些特點都是"晚起晚睡睡眠類型的固有元素"。

Other research also has hinted that your sleep preference may be biologically ‘bundled’ with other characteristics. In one recent study, for example, the University of Haifa’s Neta Ram-Vlasov found that more visually-creative people had more sleep disturbances, such as waking several times at night or insomnia. Again, correlation isn’t causation, she says. But there may be a connection to genetics. “There is a dopamine receptor gene that has been previously associated with both increased creativity and also with insomnia and sleep disturbance,” she says.

其他研究也表明,你的睡眠偏好可能在生物學上與其他特點"捆綁"在一起。例如,海法大學的內塔·拉姆-維拉索夫(Neta Ram-Vlasov)最近發現,在視覺元素上有創意的人更容易出現睡眠障礙,例如夜間醒來好幾次或者失眠。同樣地,相關性不代表因果關系。但可能與基因有關系。"有一種多巴胺受體基因同時與創造力和失眠及睡眠障礙有關。"她說。

Still think you’d be better off if you shifted to becoming a morning person? Morning exposure to bright (or natural) light, avoiding artificial light at night and carefully-timed melatonin intake can help. But because you’re effectively overriding your biology, any changes take discipline and must be consistent to last. And because night owls tend to have a longer circadian cycle, putting them even more at odds with a 24-hour schedule, that can be tougher for them to achieve.

你還是認為早睡早起會讓你變得更好嗎?可以嘗試在早晨暴露于明亮的燈光或自然光下,晚上避開人造光源,并且認真安排褪黑素的攝入時間,這樣做或許可以起到幫助。但這么做其實是在違背生物學原理,任何的改變都要自律,并且要保持一致性。然而,由于"貓頭鷹"的晝夜周期較長,導致他們與24小時的時間表差異更大,所以就更加難以做到。

In real terms? “The normal person may be able to handle 1.5 hours and achieve a stable entrainment,” says Wulff. Even that will require significant external input – like super-bright morning light (at least 2,000 lux), she says.

實際情況如何?"普通人或許可以處理1.5小時,并實現穩定的生物周期轉換。"伍爾夫說。即便是這樣,仍然需要大量的外部因素輔助——例如早晨暴露在極其明亮的光照中(至少2,000勒克斯)。

As long as that dawn wake-up isn’t guaranteeing us CEO status, we think we’ll hit snooze on any major changes to our schedule.

只要凌晨起床不能確保我們當上首席執行官,我們就會在生活規律大幅改變時昏昏欲睡。
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