好英語網好英語網

好英語網 - www.676827.live
好英語網一個提供英語閱讀,雙語閱讀,雙語新聞的英語學習網站。

保守矜持是好事還是壞事?

Is being reserved such a bad thing?
保守矜持是好事還是壞事?

Americans are brash and forward; the French, romantic and rude. But if there’s a national characteristic that defines the British, it’s probably the stiff upper lip. Crying in public is frowned upon in all but the most exceptional circumstances; the plucky Brit prefers to keep calm and carry on.

美國人傲慢而直率,法國人浪漫而粗魯。如果給英國人貼上一張標簽的話,那恐怕就是表情嚴肅、不茍言笑了。除非在最極端的情況下,否則一個英國人在公共場所哭泣會遭到他/她周圍人的側目;每當遭遇不幸,性情堅毅的英國人大多選擇保持鎮定、獨自承受。

At least that’s the theory. But are these emotional stereotypes accurate? And nationality aside, if you are someone who prefers to keep a lid on their emotions, does this make you brave... or emotionally stunted?

好像人人都這么認為。但是,這種刻板的情感印象是否準確?拋開國籍不講,如果你從不輕易表露感情,這是一種積極勇敢的表現,還是意味著你情感發育不良?

Despite the national stereotype, the British stiff upper lip attitude was actually confined to a short period of British history – from around 1870 to 1945, says Thomas Dixon, director of the Centre for the History of the Emotions at Queen Mary University of London, and author of Weeping Britannia. “It was an attitude suited to a public school-educated, imperial power that was going around the world dominating other countries,” he says.

盡管已經成為一個民族標簽,但實際上,英國人具有這種不茍言笑性格的歷史并不長,只限于大約從1870年到1945年的一段時期。倫敦瑪麗女王大學情緒歷史學中心主任,《哭泣的不列顛尼亞》(Weeping Britannia)一書作者托馬斯·迪克森(Thomas Dixon)說:“這種克制矜持的情緒符合那些在公立學校受過教育、在世界各地建立殖民地統治的國民形象,”他說。
Prior to this, the British were far more in touch with their feelings. Even the stiff, expressionless Victorians were, in reality, an emotional and sentimental bunch. Take Charles Dickens, who used the suffering of characters like Tiny Tim to pull on the heart-strings, or the young Queen Victoria, who, upon hearing the cheers and applause of the crowd at the announcement of her accession in 1837, very publicly burst into tears.

而在此之前,英國人的情緒要外露得多。即便看似表情淡漠、情感缺乏的維多利亞時代英國人事實上也有著豐富的情感。例如,查爾斯·狄更斯小說《小氣財神》里的配角小蒂姆(Tiny Tim)就因命運多舛而賺了不少讀者的眼淚;1837年,當年輕的維多利亞女王在登基大典上聽到群眾的歡呼和掌聲時,她不禁流下了激動的淚水。

According to Dixon, the stiff upper lip attitude started to loosen up after World War Two; by the 1960s, Agony Aunts were publically encouraging people to talk about their emotions. Yet its legacy lives on, despite the nightly parade of tear-jerking films and reality TV shows. “It’s very hard to turn on the television during prime time hours and not see some weeping,” Dixon says. “I think some of us like to think we have one even if we don’t. The stiff upper lip has become an object of nostalgia.”

迪克森說,二戰之后,英國人這種遇事死扛、絕不輕易外露感情的人生態度開始松動。1960年代,撰寫報紙專欄的知心大姐們開始鼓勵人們討論自己的情感。當時,晚上的電影銀幕和電視熒屏上充斥著催人淚下的電影和電視真人秀節目。“黃金時間的電視節目里全都是哭哭啼啼的場面,”迪克森說。“想找個沒有哭泣場面的節目都找不著。人們曾經崇尚的克制與堅毅已經成了一種懷舊。”

That said, it’s possible the British are still less emotional than other nationalities. Although scientists haven’t studied Brits specifically, there do seem to be cultural differences in emotion between East and West, say. For instance, Japanese people report feeling more guilt, shame and indebtedness – as well as more feelings of closeness to other people – compared to Americans and Europeans, who report experiencing more anger, irritation and pride.

英國人的情感外露程度可能要比其他民族要低,盡管科學家并未對英國人進行過特殊研究,但在情感表達方式上,東西方的確存在著文化差異。例如,日本感覺有罪、羞恥和虧欠他人,以及覺得跟別人更親密的人數比美國人和歐洲人要多,而美國人和歐洲人更容易感到憤怒、煩躁和自傲。

Some of this could come down to the value different cultures place on certain emotions. “How the people in your environment respond – even how you think they will respond – is going to determine the course your emotion takes, both in terms of your feelings and how you express them,” says Batja Mesquita, an emotion researcher at the University of Leuven in Belgium.

背后的原因在于不同文化對情緒的看法存在差異。“你所在環境中的人們如何響應——甚至你感覺他們會如何響應——都會對你的情緒以及情緒表達方式產生影響,”比利時魯汶大學情緒研究專家貝賈·麥斯奎塔(Batja Mesquita)說。

There may also be cultural differences in how willing people are to show their emotions. A poll of more than 2,500 Britons, conducted in 2007 by the Social Issues Research Centre in Oxford, revealed that fewer than 20% of Brits claimed to have “let it all out” in the past 24 hours, even though 72% of them believed that bottling emotions up is bad for your health. And 19% of those surveyed revealed they couldn’t remember the last time they let their emotions fly.

不同文化下的人們對于是否愿意表露自己的情緒也存在差異。2007年,牛津大學社會問題研究中心對2,500名英國人進行了一項調查,調查發現,只有不到20%的英國人在過去24小時內曾經“毫無保留發泄了自己的情緒”,雖然同時有高達72%的被調查者認為刻意壓抑自己的情緒對身體健康有害。還有19%的被調查者記不清楚上次抒發情感是在什么時間。

Clamping down on the expression of your emotions is something psychologists call ‘suppression’, and it’s one of five classic strategies people use to regulate their emotions. “Emotions play out in many different contexts and they play out over time,” says James Gross, professor of psychology at Stanford University.

心理學家把刻意壓抑情緒的表達稱為“壓制”,這是五種控制情緒的策略之一。“情緒會在各種不同環境下減弱,也可以隨著時間的推移慢慢減弱,”斯坦福大學心理學教授詹姆斯·格羅斯(James Gross)說。

One strategy is to avoid situations that might trigger a certain emotion; another is to modify a situation in order to boost your chances of experiencing positive emotions rather than negative ones. Yet another strategy is to focus your attention elsewhere, rather than letting your emotions take over. Then, once the situation has passed, you can try and see things from a different perspective. Or you can try and suppress it.

一種策略是盡量避免進入能夠觸發某種情緒的環境;第二種是改變環境,讓正面情緒壓過負面情緒;第三種是把注意力集中在其他事物上,不讓情緒左右你的思維,這樣,一旦環境轉移,就能從不同角度看待事物?;蛘?,可以嘗試直接壓制負面情緒。

Generally speaking, being able to regulate your emotions in these ways is a positive thing, associated with better academic achievement, mental health, and a longer lifespan. But, although emotional suppression may occasionally be useful – biting your lip if your boss makes an irritating comment during your appraisal, say – most psychologists see it as the worst strategy of the bunch.

一般來說,能夠控制自己的情緒是一件好事,能讓你取得更好的學習成績、保持良好精神健康狀態、壽命也會更長。盡管有時情緒壓制是必需的,要是你的老板在你的評估考核中給了讓人惱怒的差評,你只能咬牙忍住怒火,但是多數心理學家都認為這屬于效果最差的應對策略。

“When you try to suppress an emotion, much like when you try to suppress a thought, it can have the opposite effect,” says Susanne Schweizer, an emotion researcher at the University of Cambridge. “It’s likely to come back more strongly later on.”

“壓制情緒很像壓制思維,往往會帶來相反的后果,”劍橋大學情緒研究專家蘇珊娜·施偉策(Susanne Schweizer)說。“不良情緒最終可能會以更大的力量反彈回來。”

There’s mounting evidence that suppressing your emotions comes at a cost. In one study, Gross asked volunteers to watch a gruesome film and either hide their emotional responses to it, or to act naturally; in a follow-up study a different group of volunteers were shown amusing and happy films and asked to do the same. “What we found was that suppressing their emotions didn’t make people feel any better – and when they were suppressing positive emotions it actually made them feel less positive,” says Gross. It also required physical effort; the volunteers’ blood pressure went up when they were trying to hide their feelings. Subsequent studies have revealed that emotional suppression impairs your memory, while the people you’re interacting with find it burdensome.

有越來越多的證據證明,壓制情緒會產生不良后果。在一項實驗中,格羅斯讓志愿者首先觀看一部情節壓抑恐怖的電影??赐旰?,志愿者可以隱藏自己的情緒,也可以做出自然反應;在第二次實驗中,給另外一個志愿者小組放映情節輕松愉快的電影,然后要求和第一次實驗相同。“我們發現,壓制自己的情緒不會改善任何人的感受–如果受試者壓制快樂、愉悅等良性情緒,他們的愉悅感會打折扣,”格羅斯說。當志愿者試圖掩飾自己的情緒時,他們的血壓會升高。后續研究表明,壓制情緒會導致記憶力變差,正在和你交流的人也會感到有負擔。

What then, about the Brits? A recent poll by the mental health charity Mind revealed that four in five British 18- to 34-year-olds admit to putting on a brave face when they’re anxious, and a quarter believe that showing their emotions is a sign of weakness. You’d think that such a nation would be a terrible place to live; we’d experience more mental illness, die earlier, and hate each other.

英國人是否在壓制自己的情緒?精神健康慈善組織Mind發現,在18-34歲的英國人中,有五分之四承認在感到緊張焦慮時卻硬要裝出一副無所謂的樣子,四分之一的人認為,表露情緒是弱者的表現。如果是這樣,那么英國該是一個多么不適宜人居住的國家;在這里,人們罹患精神疾病、短壽和相互憎恨。

But there’s some evidence from East Asia – where emotional suppression is also quite normal, and even viewed as a positive trait – that the emotional costs of suppression are lower than in a country like the US, where Gross has done the majority of his research. “The negative costs may be diminished in a social context where it is really the norm to suppress,” he says.

東亞地區的情緒壓制現象同樣非常普遍,人們甚至把它看做是一種優點。有證據表明,在這一地區情緒壓制的負面作用比美國要輕。格羅斯大部分研究都是在美國進行的。“在情緒壓制成為普遍現象的社會,他的負面效應反而會減弱,”他說。

And emotional suppression can occasionally have an upside. Take the so-called Blitz Spirit: showing stoicism and determination to carry on in the face of difficult situations, such the aftermath of the 7/7 bombings in London. Emotions can be contagious; expressing panic and distress in a context like this could be disastrous. If we see others just gritting their teeth and getting on with things, it can leave us feeling encouraged instead. Social support is known to be a buffer against mental illness.

有時,情緒壓制也有好的一面。比如所謂的“閃電戰精神”:無論面對多大的艱難困苦,都要堅忍不拔,堅持到底。例如,2005年7月7日倫敦發生地鐵連環爆炸案后人們的反應。在巨大災難面前,不良情緒會互相傳染。驚慌失措、情緒低落只會造成更大的災難。這時,咬緊牙關、不懼艱難的人會給我們戰勝困難的信心。另外,社會支持也是預防精神疾病的緩沖器。

“A sense of community and a sense of support in terms of pulling together as a nation could be protective on a larger scale,” says Schweizer.

“把國家團結起來的集體感和支持感會對社會中的個體提供有效保護,”施偉策說。

Used wisely then, the stiff upper lip can be a powerful tool in your emotional toolkit. It’s just often not the best tool: you should be sure to have others in there as well.

因此,如果應用得當,沉著克制會成為你的情緒工具箱里一件強大的工具。保守矜持通常不是最好的工具,所以你最好確保工具箱里常備其他工具。
贊一下
上一篇: 哭泣對我們的健康是否有好處?
下一篇: 怎樣才能每晚只睡4個小時又精力充沛

相關推薦

隱藏邊欄
陕西快乐10分任4统计 850棋牌输钱视频 腾讯欢乐捕鱼破解版 极速赛车预测 十一运夺金网 今日股市大盘行情 大唐麻将官网 大跌的股票有大涨的 大连娱网棋牌大厅官网 沪市股票代码 快乐8中奖规则详细