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家長注意:奶瓶帶來的大危險

Sippy Cups and Other Little-Known Childhood Hazards
家長注意:奶瓶帶來的大危險

Two months ago, Jackie Sherrill of Grove City, Ohio, was sitting on her couch when her 20-month-old toddler, Morgan, who was sitting beside her, suddenly reached over. In an instant, Morgan, who had a bottle in her mouth, tumbled off the couch, crashing into an ottoman as she plunged to the floor.

兩個月前,家住俄亥俄州格羅夫市的賈姬·謝里爾(Jackie Sherrill)坐在沙發上,她20個月大的寶寶莫根(Morgan)坐在一旁,猛地探過身來。當時莫根嘴里正含著一個奶瓶,就在一剎那,她猛地從沙發上跌落下來,撞上了旁邊的一個擱腳凳。

As she wiped away her daughter's tears, Ms. Sherrill noticed that Morgan had a broken tooth and a cut mouth, damage from the hard plastic bottle she had been drinking from. Morgan didn't suffer any long-term harm, but it was then that Ms. Sherrill decided to begin transitioning her daughter from bottles to normal cups.

謝里爾擦著女兒的眼淚,她發現女兒撞斷了一根牙,嘴唇也裂了個口子,這是被她正在喝水的硬質塑料奶瓶給刮破的。莫根受的傷并不會帶來長期影響,不過正是經過了此事,謝里爾下決心不再讓女兒喝奶瓶,改用普通杯子。

"I never would have thought that a child could get hurt from a bottle," said Ms. Sherrill. "It's something comforting to them. That's not one of the first things you think about when you're giving a kid a bottle."

謝里爾說:“我怎么都想不到,寶寶竟然會因為奶瓶受傷。奶瓶原本應該是慰藉孩子的東西。在你把奶瓶塞到寶寶手中時,斷然不會想到它可能會造成傷害。”
 

奶瓶造成兒童受傷事故的數量驚人。

Most parents don't think of a child's bottle as a potential hazard. But two new studies in the journal Pediatrics highlight several under-recognized causes of injury in young children: bottles, pacifiers and sippy cups, which cause thousands of injuries to the mouth and teeth every year, often when toddlers topple over while holding them in their mouths, and button batteries, those flat silver discs used in toys, watches, remote control devices and other home electronics that can cause serious harm when swallowed.

大部分家長都認為,孩子用的奶瓶不可能造成潛在的傷害。但《兒科學期刊》(Pediatrics)近期刊登的兩則研究報告指出,一些物品可能會對幼兒造成傷害,此前人們對此認識不足,這包括了奶瓶、安撫奶嘴和吸管杯,每年它們會導致幾千起兒童嘴部和牙齒受傷案例,剛剛學步的幼兒用嘴含著上述物品時不小心摔倒,往往導致事故發生。此外還有紐扣電池,這類銀色小圓片在玩具、手表、遙控器和其他家用電子用品中非常常見,一旦被孩子吞下,會造成嚴重問題。

The report on injuries involving bottles, pacifiers and sippy cups, the first nationwide look at such injuries, found that in the 20-year period from 1991 through 2010, more than 45,000 children under the age of 3 -- an average of about 2,270 children a year -- were treated in emergency rooms for injuries related to bottles, pacifiers and sippy cups.

研究奶瓶、安撫奶嘴和吸管杯造成的傷害,這在美國國內尚屬首次,研究報道回溯了從1991年到2010年的病歷,結果發現在這20年間,有超過4.5萬名三歲以下的兒童受到上述物品的傷害,要送去急診室緊急救治,平均來說每年有2700名兒童因此受傷。

"This is the equivalent of about one child every four hours," said Sarah A. Keim, a study author and a researcher at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. She noted that the true number is likely to be much higher, since the study looked only at children who had been taken to emergency rooms. "We expect that less severe injuries were handled by the parents themselves, or that the child was taken to a pediatrician," she said.

“這就等于是說,每四小時就有一個孩子受傷,”本文研究作者、俄亥俄州哥倫布市美國兒童醫院(Nationwide Children’s Hospital)研究員莎拉·A·凱姆(Sarah A. Keim)說。她還指出真實的數字可能高得多,因為這項研究只統計了那些被送去急診的兒童。“我們估計,那些不太重的傷會由孩子家長自行處理,或者交由兒科醫生來處置,”她說。

While almost all children use a pacifier or bottle at some point, health authorities have long encouraged parents to wean them off around the time they are learning to walk. The American Academy of Pediatrics, for example, recommends that children stop using pacifiers by about 6 months and transition from bottles to lidless cups by 12 months -- yet most parents ignore these guidelines. Studies show that nearly half of 1- and 2-year-olds continue to use bottles, and more than three quarters of children 1 to 2 drink from sippy cups.

差不多每個幼兒都會在成長的某個階段使用安撫奶嘴或奶瓶,不過長期以來,衛生部門一直倡導家長在孩子開始學步時,就不再給他們使用這類用品。比方說,美國兒科學會(The American Academy of Pediatrics)推薦家長在孩子滿6個月時,讓他們戒掉安撫奶嘴,在12個月時從奶瓶過渡到沒有蓋子的杯子,不過大多數家長都忽視了這些指引。研究顯示,有近半數一到兩歲的幼兒仍在喝奶瓶,超過四分之三的一到兩歲的幼兒在喝吸管杯。

In the new study, a majority of the injuries involved 1-year-olds. Bottles were the most common culprit, accounting for about 66 percent of cases, followed by pacifiers, at 20 percent, and sippy cups, at 14 percent. Injuries tended to occur at home and result in cuts to the mouth and face, usually when children were running or walking.

在這項新的研究中,大部分外傷都發生在一歲左右的幼兒身上。奶瓶是最大的罪魁禍首,占到了所有事故中的66%,排在第二位的是安撫奶嘴,占20%,而吸管杯所占比例為14%。事故往往發生在孩子在家中跑動或走路時,結果是嘴唇和臉部劃傷。

"We think 1-year-old children are just learning to walk and run and are pretty unsteady on their feet and may be more likely to experience a fall," said Dr. Keim.

“我們覺得,一歲大的寶寶剛開始學走學跑,他們的腳步非常不穩,更有可能跌跤,”凱姆博士說。

She added that in her estimation, if the guidelines for stopping bottle and pacifier use had been followed, "about 80 percent of the children in the study would not have been using the product at the time they were injured."

她還補充說,據她推測,如果家長們都按指引來,不讓孩子繼續用奶瓶和安撫奶嘴,“在本研究中,有大約80%的孩子在受傷時,本來不應該在使用這些用品。”

Dr. Keim said that teaching children to use regular cups was important not because there is anything about the design of a normal cup that makes it safer, but that parents are simply more likely to make their children sit or stay in one spot while drinking from a lidless cup to prevent spills.

凱姆說,教孩子用普通杯子,并不是因為普通杯子從設計上更加安全,而是因為孩子在用這種杯子喝水時,家長們會要求孩子穩穩當當地坐著,或待在一個固定的地方,免得將水從杯子里濺出來。

"It's the combination of being seated while drinking that I think would reduce the risk of injury," she said.

“我覺得,喝水時安坐,這最能減少傷害的危險,”她說。

The second study, warning parents to be on the lookout for button batteries, a concern raised in earlier reports, noted that in the last two decades, about 66,000 children and teenagers were taken to emergency rooms in the United States for battery-related injuries. While none of the cases -- many involving children under 5 -- were fatal, lithium-cell batteries that are swallowed can set off a chemical reaction inside the body that can lead to severe tissue damage in just two hours.

第二項研究在此前曾報道過,提醒家長們要注意紐扣電池的危害,報告指出在最近20年里,在美國有6.6萬名兒童和青少年因為電池造成的相關傷害被送去急診室,其中很多發生在不足五歲的幼兒身上。盡管沒有一起事件導致患者死亡,但吞食鋰電池可能會導致體內發生化學反應,在兩小時內就會造成嚴重的器官損害。

The researchers, also at Nationwide Children's Hospital, found that the number of cases had doubled during the study period. While parents need to be mindful about not leaving button batteries within reach of young children, they said, doctors, too, need to be aware of the growing problem so they can recognize it.

這個研究同樣是由美國兒童醫院完成,研究者發現,在研究期間,類似案例的發生數量翻了一番。他們提醒說,家長需要避免讓幼兒接觸紐扣電池,而醫生們也需要了解這個益發嚴重的問題,好及時鑒別發現。

"Because button batteries may be mistaken for a coin, electrocardiogram electrode or other external object on a chest radiograph," the authors wrote, "disc-shaped objects should be carefully examined for features such as diameter and a double rim to prevent delays in diagnosis."

作者們寫道:“拍胸片時,紐扣電池可能會被誤當成硬幣、心電電極片或其他外設物品,在看到圓片狀的物體時,醫生需要仔細查看直徑和雙圈這類特征,以免延誤診斷。”
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