好英語網好英語網

好英語網 - www.676827.live
好英語網一個提供英語閱讀,雙語閱讀,雙語新聞的英語學習網站。

高校競逐免費網絡課程

Top Universities Test the Online Appeal of Free
高校競逐免費網絡課程

A few months ago, free online courses from prestigious universities were a rarity. Now, they are the cause for announcements every few weeks, as a field suddenly studded with big-name colleges and competing software platforms evolves with astonishing speed.

僅僅在幾個月前,知名大學的免費網絡課程還寥寥無幾?,F在,每隔幾周就會有新的網絡課程項目問世,使這個領域突然間擠滿了大牌院校和相互競爭的軟件平臺,以驚人的速度不斷演變。

In a major development on Tuesday, a dozen highly ranked universities said they had signed on with Coursera, a new venture offering free classes online. They still must overcome some skepticism about the quality of online education and the prospects for having the courses cover the costs of producing them, but their enthusiasm is undimmed.

周二就有一個重大動態,12所知名高校宣布,他們已簽約參與Coursera的項目,后者是一家提供免費網絡課程的新公司。雖然他們仍須克服一些疑慮(網絡教學的質量如何?這些課程將來能否收回制作成本?),但他們的熱情不減。
 

But at universities that have not yet seized a piece of this action, the response ranges from curiosity to fear of losing a crucial competition. When University of Virginia trustees ousted their president last month — a decision they later reversed — one reason cited was concern about being left behind online. (Virginia was included in Tuesday’s announcement.)

但在那些還沒有投入這波熱潮的大學,人們的反應不一,有人好奇,也有人害怕輸掉一場至關重要的競爭。上月,弗吉尼亞大學(University of Virginia)的理事會解聘了該校校長(后來他們撤銷了這個決定),他們援引的原因之一就是擔心該校在網絡課程方面落在其他大學之后。(周二的宣布包括弗吉尼亞大學。)

“There’s panic,” said Kevin Carey, director of education policy at the New America Foundation, a nonpartisan research group. “Whether it’s senseless panic is unclear.”

“目前有一場恐慌,”無黨派的研究團體“新美國基金會”(New America Foundation)教育政策主任凱文·凱里(Kevin Carey)說。“至于這種恐慌是不是無謂的,則尚不明朗。”

Massive open online courses, or MOOCs, let colleges reach vast audiences at relatively low cost, but they have not yet made money from them. And if it becomes possible in years to come to get a complete college education from an elite institution online, free or at relatively low cost, experts wonder whether some colleges will find it harder to attract students willing to pay $20,000, $40,000 or even $60,000 a year for the traditional on-campus experience.

大規模開放式網絡課程(MOOC)讓高校以相對較低的成本,接觸到廣大的受眾,但這些課程尚未給學校帶來利潤。讓專家們揣測的是,如果在未來幾年中,人們有可能免費(或者花相對較少的錢)在網上得到名校的全套大學教育,那么會不會有些學校將發現,它們吸引學生花2萬、4萬甚至6萬美元到校念書的難度加大了?

Online classes have been around for years, with technology evolving to include multimedia features and interaction among students and faculty. What is new is the way top colleges are jumping in with free courses — in effect, throwing open the doors digitally.

在線課程已經存在多年,隨著技術發展,這些課程逐漸采用了多媒體手段和師生互動。目前的新現象是,頂尖高校競相推出免費課程,實際上就是徹底打開了數字大門。

So far, most people signing up live in foreign countries. But MOOCs will become more appealing to domestic students when they give course credits toward a degree, something the elite universities have not yet done. The University of Washington says it plans to do so, and it may be just a matter of time before earning credits becomes standard.

到目前為止,多數注冊課程的人都居住在國外。但如果可以通過MOOC累計學分拿學位(精英高校還沒有開始這么做)的話,它將對國內學生更具吸引力。華盛頓大學表示,該校計劃授予學分。網絡課程學分制的普及也許只是時間問題。

“The people who should be worried about this are the large tier of American universities — especially the expensive private schools — that are not elite and don’t have the same reputation” as the big-name universities now creating MOOCs, said Anya Kamenetz, an author who writes on the future of higher education.

“應當對這種現象感到擔心的,是大批算不上精英、(與那些開辦MOOC的大牌院校相比)不具有同等聲望的美國大學,尤其是那些學費昂貴的私校,”論述高等教育未來的作者阿尼亞·卡梅涅茨(Anya Kamenetz)表示。

Residential colleges already attract far less than half of the higher education market. Most enrollment and nearly all growth in higher education is in less costly options that let students balance classes with work and family: commuter colleges, night schools, online universities.

寄宿制院校在高等教育市場所占份額已經不到一半。在高等教育市場,注冊人數最多、幾乎貢獻全部增幅的,是那些費用較低,而且讓學生在學習、工作和家庭生活之間找到平衡的選擇:社區大學、夜校和網上大學。

Most experts say there will always be students who want to live on campus, interacting with professors and fellow students, particularly at prestigious universities. But as a share of the college market, that is likely to be a shrinking niche.

多數專家表示,總會有學生想住在校園里,與教授和同學來往,尤其是在知名大學。但就大學市場的份額而言,這很可能是一個不斷縮小的縫隙領域。

The elite universities will be best able to compete with low-cost alternatives because their large endowments make them less dependent on tuition income, and they can lower their effective prices through generous financial aid, said John Nelson, a managing director at Moody’s Investors Service who analyzes higher education finances.

穆迪投資者服務公司(Moody’s Investors Service)分析高等教育財務的董事總經理約翰·內爾森(John Nelson)表示,精英大學將最有能力與低價的學校競爭,因為它們有大筆的捐贈資金支撐,不那么依賴學費收入,而且它們還能通過向學生提供慷慨的資助來降低實際學費。

Analysts say that universities will inevitably try to make money from MOOCs, whether by charging tuition or not. Software companies working with colleges have looked into advertising, or selling information on students to prospective employers.

分析人士稱,無論是否收取學費,各大學難免將試圖從MOOC賺錢。那些和大學合作的軟件公司,已經研究了用廣告創收的構想,或者向潛在的雇主出售學員信息。

William E. Kirwan, chancellor of the University System of Maryland, noted that a few public colleges, including his system’s University College, already offer mostly online courses. In the future, he said, the standard class will be a hybrid of in-person and online elements, which Maryland is experimenting with.

馬里蘭大學系統(USM)校長威廉·E.·柯萬(William E. Kirwan)表示,一些公立大學,包括他所在系統的馬里蘭大學大學學院(UMUC),已經把多數課程放到網上。他說,未來的標準班級將是真人和網絡元素的混合體。馬里蘭大學正在嘗試這種模式。

“We think this approach can cut costs by about 25 percent,” he said, “enabling each professor to work with more students, while producing a clear improvement in learning outcomes.”

“我們認為這種方式可以削減大約25%的成本,”他說,“讓每個教授能收更多學生,同時明顯提高學習效果。”

For a decade, Carnegie Mellon University’s Open Learning Initiative has created free online courses. But for many educators, Stanford fired the starting gun last fall, with a free online course in artificial intelligence that drew 160,000 students.

卡內基梅隆大學(Carnegie Mellon University)的“開放學習項目”(OLI)開辦免費網絡課程已有10年。但對很多教育者來說,打響發令槍的是斯坦福大學(Stanford University),該校在去年秋天推出人工智能免費網絡課程,吸引了16萬學生。

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology started a free class project, MITx, in December. The next month, a Stanford professor who helped teach the artificial intelligence class founded Udacity, a company offering free courses in partnership with colleges and professors.

去年12月,麻省理工學院(MIT)啟動了免費授課項目MITx。次月,在人工智能課程授課的一名斯坦福大學教授創立了Udacity公司,與大學和教授合作提供免費課程。

In April, Stanford, Princeton, the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Michigan joined forces with Coursera to offer free classes. In May, Harvard teamed with M.I.T. to create a similar venture, edX.

4月,斯坦福大學、普林斯頓大學(Princeton University)、賓夕法尼亞大學(University of Pennsylvania)和密歇根大學(University of Michigan)宣布與Coursera合作提供免費課程。5月,哈佛大學(Harvard)與麻省理工學院聯手推出類似的edX項目。

In the last week, more universities signed on with Coursera.

過去一周里,更多大學加盟Coursera。

“Our participation was finalized literally over the weekend,” said J. Milton Adams, vice provost at the University of Virginia, which listed five free courses. “I’m going to have some unhappy faculty members saying, ‘Why can’t my course be on there?’ ”

提供5個免費課程的弗吉尼亞大學的副教務長J·米爾頓·亞當斯(J. Milton Adams)表示,“我們的參與是在周末敲定的??隙〞幸恍┎粷M的教師向我抱怨,‘為什么不把我的課程放到網上?’”
贊一下
上一篇: 哈佛法律及工商管理雙學位項目最著名的畢業生
下一篇: 超越谷歌:硅谷下一個領導者

相關推薦

隱藏邊欄
陕西快乐10分任4统计